e-book Functionally Graded Materials in the 21st Century: A Workshop on Trends and Forecasts

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Emphasis has been laid on product complexity or simplicity as well as life cycle. Innovative material concepts are growing rapidly in response to the challenges facing the humanity and to fulfill the new design opportunities that have been created. Material selection also takes into account the durability and reliability aspects that various product designs need.

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CN103334021B - 一种微通道芯体制造工艺 - Google Patents

Some aspects including the environment, tenacity of the material, safety, and cost saving aspects, guide designers. The designs with the new improved materials aim at providing maximum benefits to the end users, promote sustainability as well as reducing dependence on the irreplaceable natural resources. Some of these materials are nano-structured materials, smart materials as well as spin off materials mainly used in the aerospace industry and renewable materials that are expected to provide an alternative to materials of fossil origin. This paper will focus on products that have been manufactured out of designs that are made from new materials.

Functionally Graded Materials in the 21st Century: A Workshop on Trends and Forecasts

The industries that the high tech designed materials fall include aerospace, motor vehicle, building, and construction. Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you!

One of the industries that use some of the most advanced technologies today is the aerospace industry. These needs are mainly motivated by the challenges that the consumers are facing in the, market the need include building new aircraft for defense, climate and weather monitoring and space exploration. There is also the need to produce environmental friendly materials that will be used in the manufacture of equipment that produces minimal pollution. Innovation in the industry has led to the adoption of high tech ways that improve the current materials besides producing completely new ones.

Materials commonly used in the aviation sector include refractory metals, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, and rhenium [3]. There are also ceramic materials as well as electronic chemicals and functional materials. These materials have been developed over time. They have undergone transformation and converted to new materials that the aviation industry uses with numerous advantages that address the 21 st challenges.


  1. Stanford Libraries!
  2. CNA - 复杂形状陶瓷件的叠层制备法 - Google Patents.
  3. Fabrication of Al-Based FGM Containing TiO2 Nano-Particles by a Centrifugal Mixed-Powder Method.
  4. Aerospace and aviation;

The new materials have been able to offer aviation equipment extended life with super alloys of tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, niobium. In addition, aviation industries have produced new materials and technology using yttrium-stabilized zirconium that has led to efficient fuel consumption for both commercial and aircraft.

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The discovery of ceramics and its use in outer space travels have proved to be a vital development in aviation and aerospace industry with new materials helping in heat insulation especially on the international space station. Making lightweight vehicles is a concept that manufacturers of motor vehicles have pursued since the discovery of the motor vehicle. Like in the aerospace industry, lightweight vehicles are efficient in their consumption of fuels, a concern that 21 st century environmentalists and business people share [4].

Changes for instance to the Fuel Economy in the US has forced automakers to research on new materials to design new light weight vehicles whose consumption of fuels is significantly reduced. Additionally, lightweight vehicles manufactured with lightweight materials have sustained greenhouse gas emissions reductions over the lifecycle of the vehicle. Furthermore, lightweight vehicles have lower noise levels compared to old models. The materials used in the production of lightweight vehicles have been modified over time.

Regular steel has been the main material in vehicle production for a long time. However, other materials like high-strength steel, aluminium, and composites have increasingly found use in lightweight vehicle manufacturing especially the 21 st century. In the 21 st century, magnesium and composites have found greater use in vehicle manufacturing in the pursuit of lightweight vehicles.

The current vehicle designs involving composites are for cosmetic purposes. Nevertheless, like in the aerospace industry, car-manufacturing companies like BMW and Daimler have started joint ventures aimed at increasing the use of composite materials in structural construction of cars [5].

Already the new MBW Megacity relies heavily on carbon fibres components for structural elements. According to BMW and Daimler, the new partnership on new vehicle manufacturing materials aims to introduce carbon fibre vehicles into the market to address the challenges presented by the existing models. Additionally, industry players are emphasizing on the development of multilateral designs that will help in the production of optimal lightweight vehicle designs.

Sustainability is the most talked about and widely held notion that guides human endeavors in the world today. Furthermore, sustainability has environmental, social, and economic dimensions that affect all human life aspects on the planet. The construction industry besides the ones discussed above bears the greatest responsibility in environmental degradation [6]. The choice of materials used in the industry determines the effects the environment bears and if they are friendly or not.

The idea behind improving materials used in the construction industry is to improve the efficiency of buildings and improving their capability in recycling and reusability. Many of the buildings that have come up in the past have been refurbished or decommissioned. Construction engineers tend to consider these building a great source of reusable materials that can be salvaged through harvesting. Salvaged materials have become part of the designs of buildings in the 21 st century.

The use of salvaged materials according to environmentalists is one of the most effective ways of conserving natural resources that have widespread economic benefits. The confederate you assume clicking for is really longer expressly, or simply assumed in the whole file number. In , a download Functionally Graded Materials in who required against manager by the line of Abraham Lincoln were book.

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